Computer Network

What is a computer network?

When more than one computer is connected in some way and this technique is called a network. Through computer networks, we perform resource sharing, file sharing, and data communication.
All the devices (computers) connected to the network are called nodes. And the computers that provide resources for the network are called servers.

Nodes, ie your computer, require a medium to connect to the network, and this medium includes cables, optic fiber cables, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc. and network devices are also used. Such as router, switch, hub, etc.


Computer network diagram:

Fig: Computer Network 


Computer network features

  • File Sharing
  • Security
  • User Communication
  • Scalability
  • Reliability

1. File-Sharing:

File sharing is the most common function provided by the network and involves grouping all data files together on a server or servers.
The operating system also helps restrict access to these files only for authorized personnel, namely those who have the authority to work on the system (authorized personnel).

2. Security:

Network security is a process by which a network is protected from unauthorized access (access without permission), hacking and service attacks (DoD), viruses, worms, etc.
Network security is not implemented by everyone, it requires experts.

We must use hardware and software such as firewalls, antivirus software, etc. to protect the network in the network. This keeps the security of the network intact.

3. User Communication:

The network provides a user communication platform. We can communicate from one place to another through text message, email, video conferencing, etc.

4. Scalability:

Scalability is a very important feature of a network. We can add new components to the network. The network must be scalable because we can expand the network by adding new devices.

5. Reliability :

Reliability should mean no failure in the network or if recovery from failure should be accelerated.


Type of Computer Network

  • PAN
  • LAN
  • MAN
  • WAN

1. PAN :

PAN refers to "Personal Area Network". It is a computer network that connects a person's work area.
PAN transmits data through networking devices In the PAN network, we can operate within the network range.
Example: Bluetooth is a personal area network, but it is a wireless pan that works by transferring data using radio waves.





Advantages :

  • PAN is easy to use.
  • It is very reliable.
  • Connect to many devices at a time.
  • No extra space requires.

Disadvantages :

  • PAN Has a limited range.
  • The Transfer of data is slow.
  • PAN can be used only for the personal area.

2. LAN :

Its full name is Local Area Network. It is a network that is used to connect two or more computers.

This network serves to connect network devices over short distances. We use LAN in small buildings, schools, homes, offices, and malls.

The LAN can be enabled via Wi-Fi or Ethernet. When you share your Wi-Fi connection with someone else, LAN is also enabled here.





Advantages :

  • Resource Sharing
  • Easier to Control
  • High Data Transfer Speed
  • Data Security
  • Internet Sharing

Disadvantages :

  • High maintenance cost
  • Data Security Threat
  • Range Limited Area

3. MAN :

MAN refers to "metropolitan area networks". This network connects more areas of LAN and some less area of ​​WAN. A CITY can be added by this. MAN networks are large networks made up of many LANs.
MAN is used to transfer data at high speeds within a city. The best example of this is cable TV.


Advantages :

  • It can connect more network devices than LANs.
  • It provides higher security compared to WAN.
  • Its range is more than that of LAN.
  • Easy to implements.

Disadvantages :

  • Difficult to manage.
  • More cable required.

4. WAN :


WAN refers to "wide-area networks". It is a collection of many LANs, the range of which is much larger than LAN and Man. We use the WAN network to connect a city or a country or a country abroad. This network connects many similar networks such as multiple LANs and Man's.

The best example of this is the Internet, through this network people can connect to computers or users placed anywhere in the world or from computers. It is implemented by a public broadcasting system or private network.






Advantages :
  • With the help of a WAN network, we can transfer data all over the world.
  • Shares software and resources with connecting workstations.

Disadvantages :

  • High setup costs.
  • Security issues.

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