Computer Network Topology

What is Topology?

The topology is known as the size or layout of the network. Network topology describes how different nodes of the network are connected and how they establish communication with each other. The computers and data flow connecting to it are called topology.

Types of Network Topology 

  • Bus
  • Ring
  • Star
  • Tree
  • Mesh 

1. Bus Topology:

In a bus topology network, each computer and network device is connected to a single cable, called a bus topology. On a bus, the topology requires less cable and easier to add a new node.


It only transmits data in one direction.

Each device is connected by a single cable

Advantages :
  • It is easy to Understand.
  • Required less cable for this network.
  • Bus Topology used in a small network.
  • Topology is easy to set up.

Disadvantages :
  • The Topology we can use limited length cable in bus topology.
  • This topology works slightly slower.
  • If the cable fails then the entire network fails in the bus topology.

2. Ring Topology :

In-ring topology there is a point-to-point connection in which each computer is connected to each other.

 In-ring networks are used to exchange data from one computer to another, by interpreting other computers in the middle to verify whether the said data is for them.

If this data is not for them, they pass that data to another computer.

Advantages :
  • Easy to install.
  • This topology is also easy to manage.
  • Fault identification is simplified.
  • Reduces the chances of a collision.

Disadvantages :
  • Expensive.
  • In this topology, if a computer is faulty, it causes the entire network to malfunction.
  • Computers in this network depend on each other.

3. Star Topology :

In the star topology, all computers are connected to a hub or only one cable.

Star topology is most commonly used. In the star topology, the central network device acts as a server.

The entire computer is controlled by the host computer in a star topology.

In the star topology, each node has its own dedicated connection to the hub.

Advantages :
  • Easy to add new stations.
  • In star topology, When the computer or network cable fails, it does not affect the entire network.
  • Star topology is cost-effective in networks because it uses inexpensive coaxial cable.
  • High Data Speed.

Disadvantages :
  • This entire system depends on the host computer. If the host computer fails, then the whole network fails.
  • More Cable required.

4. Tree Topology :

This topology is related to a star topology or simply topology. In a star topology, there is the main computer, it also has a main computer, and as all computers in the topology are connected by a wire, the tree is also in the topology. It is also called hierarchical topology.

Advantages :
  • It has a Point to Point Connection of the device.
  • The Tree topology network is easy to extend.
  • It is also very easy to install.
  • Used in Wide Area Network.

Disadvantages :
  • It's expensive.
  • This requires a large cable.
  • In-tree topology, if the computer or node fails, the network of all child nodes also does not work.

5. Mesh Topology :

Each device is connected to another device known as mesh topology. Each device is connected to another device called a mesh topology. Every computer is connected to each other and they can easily exchange their information as they are connected to each other. It is not a host computer in the mesh topology.

In a mesh topology, it does not have a switch, hub, or any central computer.

Advantages :
  • Provide mesh topology security and privacy.
  • Fast Communication.
  • Each connection can carry its own data load in a mesh topology.

Disadvantages :
  • It is costly.
  • Installation and configuration are difficult.

Note:  Above, we have read about computer Network topology. Let us now read about computer network transmission mode. Below we will read which computer network content.

Transmission Mode:

What is transmission Mode?

Transmission modes refer to transferring data between two devices. We also know this  the name of communication mode.
It represents the direction of the flow of information.

There are three types of transmission mode:-
  • Simplex Mode
  • Half-Duplex Mode
  • Full-Duplex Mode

Simplex Mode

In simplex mode, communication is unidirectional. Data flow in one direction. The sender can only transmit data but cannot retrieve it.
Simplex mode can use the full capacity of the channel to send data in one direction.

Example: Keyboard and traditional monitor. 

Half-Duplex Mode 

In this, all devices can transmit and receive data but they cannot do it at the same time.
One can only send, the other can only receive, and when one receives, the other can only send.

Example: Only one person can talk at a time in a walkie-talkie.

Full-Duplex Mode

Full-duplex data transmission means that we can send and retrieve data at the same time. This is the fastest directional mode.

Example: Telephone communication system is an example where two people can talk to each other at the same time.

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