Computer Network - Architecture

What is Computer Network Architecture?

An architecture defines how computers should be connected to achieve maximum benefit from computer networks such as better response time, security, scalability, etc.

 Two types of computer Network Architecture 

  • Peer-To-Peer Network
  • Client/Server Network

1. Peer-To-Peer Network :

A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is formed when two or more PCs are connected and share resources without having to go through a separate server computer.

There is no dedicated server to the peer-to-peer network.

In Pier to Pier, each computer is responsible for its security.

A peer-to-peer network can be used for small environments, typically up to 10 computers.

Advantages :

 •  It is also very easy to manage because every computer manages itself.

•   It is easy to use.

•   The cost of peer to peer network is low.

•   If there is a fault in one computer, then it does not make a difficult for other computers.

•  Each user is the administrator of their computer.

Disadvantages :

•   Security Issue.

• Other users also access each computer, due to which the performance of the user slows down.

•  It does not have a centralized server.

2. Client/Server Network :

A client/server network is a network model designed for end-users called clients that can be accessed from a server (such as a central computer), known as a server.

The client/server architecture is also called the computing model or client/server network, which broadcasts and links to the service network. The server performs dedicated procedures for managing computer or disk drives (file servers), printers (printer servers), or network traffic (network servers).

Where the number of computers is high, the client-server architecture is used.

Advantages :

•    A Client/Server the network contains a centralized system.

•    Security better.

•    Speed better for sharing resources.

Disadvantages :

•   Client/server the network is very expensive.

• In the client/server the network requires a dedicated network administrator to manage all the resources.

Note:  Above, we have read about computer architecture. Let us now read about computer network components. Below we will read which computer network content.

Network Component 

What are Computer Network components?

Computer network components are Two or more devices are connected to share data or resources and the user can communication from a network.

Some important network components are Bridge, Switch, Hub, Router, Repeater, and Gateway.

Computer Network Devices

1.     Hub

2.     Bridges

3.     Router

4.     Switch

5.     Repeater

6.     Gateway

1. Hub :

Hub is used to connect various hardware devices. Two or more networks are connected by the hub so that they can exchange data.

It functions in  (physical layer) of the OSI model.

The hub has a lot of ports. a hub sends data packets coming from anyone port to all other ports. It depends on the receiving computer (port) to decide whether the packet is for it or not.

Hubs are used to connect different computers in the local area network (LAN) to a star or hierarchical topology.



Types of Hub :


1. Passive Hub :

A Passive Hub simply combined the signals of a network.


2. Active Hub :

Active hubs are a little smarter comparison between passive hubs. In this, the signal is regenerated, so they also act as repeaters. These are called multiport repeaters. It requires a power supply.


 2. Bridges :




The bridge is also a computer networking device and works on the Data Link Layer of The OSI  Model. The bridge sends packets between two network segments that use the same Communications Protocol. The bridge has two ports, one coming in and the other outgoing to connect the other parts of the network.

The bridge checks the destination address before sending the data. If the bridge finds the destination address, it sends the data otherwise it will not transmit the data.

Bridges are used to extend the network by maintaining data signals and traffic.


3. Router :




The Router is an inter-networking device used to connect different networks.

The router uses the software to check the address on the data packets sent over the network and transmit it in the right direction. The routing table is used for this.

It works in layer 3 (network layer) of the OSI model.

It filters the data based on the IP address.


 4. Switch :



A Switch is a hardware device, which connects multiple devices  on various computers network.

It is used in a star topology.

It works in layer 2 (data list layer) of the OSI model,

The switch has built-in hardware chips that perform the function of switching. Hence its speed is very fast and they come with many ports.

It goes as a data frame and also performs data filtering like a bridge.

A switch is a complete duplex device in which the host can send and receive data simultaneously.


 5. Repeater :



The repeater is an electronic device that works on the physical layer of the OSI model. It is used to increase transmission so that the signal can cover long distances. A meaning repeater is used to regenerate signals before they become weak.

The repeater is of two types :

•    Analog repeater

•    Digital repeater

 Analog repeater: only amplifies the signal.

 Digital repeater: reconstructs the signal and removes the errors and sends them forward.


 6. Gateway :

A Gateway is a node on a network with the help of which we connect two networks.

A Gateway can be completely implemented in software, completely in hardware or combination of both.

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