SQL Database

What is a database?

The database is an integrated collection of related information with details so that it is available to different users for different applications.

A database is usually controlled by a DBMS (Database Management System).

Properties of a database:-

A database represents some perspective of the real world.

A database is a coherent collection of data with some underlying meaning.

A database is designed for a specific purpose.

What is DBMS?

DBMS stands for Database Management System, a collection of programs that enables users to create and maintain databases. DBMS is a software system that represents the processes of defining, constructing, manipulating, and sharing databases between different users and applications.

Defining: - In defining, specifies the database specifying the type, structure, and data of the data stored in the database.

Creation:- In creation, the database is the process of storing data on some storage medium which is controlled by DBMS.

Manipulations:- Manipulations include tasks such as querying the database, updating the database to retrieve specific data in the database.

Sharing:- A database allows multiple users and programs to access the database simultaneously.

The Advantages of DBMS:-

1. Data integrity

2. data sharing

3. Security

4. Data redundancy

5. Concurrency control

6. Data consistency

Disadvantages of DBMS:-

1. Costly

2. Data corruption

Types of DBMS :

There are four types of database management systems (DBMS).

1. Hierarchical DBMS

2. Network DBMS

3. Relational DBMS

4. Object-oriented DBMS

5. Hierarchical DBMS:-

The hierarchical database was developed by IBM in the 1980s.

Every child node has a single parent in the hierarchical database.

The relationship between the records in the hierarchical database is the parent-child.


We can rapidly access and update hierarchical databases.

In this database, we store the data tree form.


One parent per child.

Data independence.

Network DBMS:-

The network database structure was an invention by Charles Bachchan.

It is a database that represents a network data model. A network database is similar to a hierarchical database separated by a key point in that the network database may have relationships with multiple entities in a node.

Network database management systems (Network DBMS) form relationship bodies form network structures.


Ease of data access.

Data independence.


System complexity


3. Relational DBMS: -

A relational database is based on a relational data model, using a collection of 'tables' to represent both data and relationships between those data.

A relational database is a collective set of several data sets. Which is represented by tables, records, and columns.

In the relational model, each table has many columns and each column has a unique name.







Structured boundaries

Object-oriented DBMS: -

Object-oriented databases classify data as objects and classes.

Object-oriented OOPs follow concepts. And in the object-oriented concept, an object is a real-world entity and a class is a collection of objects.


User-defined type


easy to handle


more complicated.

Not many programming languages ​​support object databases.

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