SQL Database

What is a database?


The database is an integrated collection of related information with details so that it is available to different users for different applications.

A database is usually controlled by a DBMS (Database Management System).


Properties of a database:-


A database represents some perspective of the real world.

A database is a coherent collection of data with some underlying meaning.

A database is designed for a specific purpose.


What is DBMS?


DBMS stands for Database Management System, a collection of programs that enables users to create and maintain databases. DBMS is a software system that represents the processes of defining, constructing, manipulating, and sharing databases between different users and applications.


Defining: - In defining, specifies the database specifying the type, structure, and data of the data stored in the database.


Creation:- In creation, the database is the process of storing data on some storage medium which is controlled by DBMS.


Manipulations:- Manipulations include tasks such as querying the database, updating the database to retrieve specific data in the database.


Sharing:- A database allows multiple users and programs to access the database simultaneously.


The Advantages of DBMS:-


1. Data integrity

2. data sharing

3. Security

4. Data redundancy

5. Concurrency control

6. Data consistency


Disadvantages of DBMS:-


1. Costly

2. Data corruption


Types of DBMS :


There are four types of database management systems (DBMS).


1. Hierarchical DBMS


2. Network DBMS


3. Relational DBMS


4. Object-oriented DBMS


5. Hierarchical DBMS:-


The hierarchical database was developed by IBM in the 1980s.

Every child node has a single parent in the hierarchical database.

The relationship between the records in the hierarchical database is the parent-child.



Benefit:


We can rapidly access and update hierarchical databases.

In this database, we store the data tree form.


Disadvantages:


One parent per child.

Data independence.


Network DBMS:-


The network database structure was an invention by Charles Bachchan.


It is a database that represents a network data model. A network database is similar to a hierarchical database separated by a key point in that the network database may have relationships with multiple entities in a node.


Network database management systems (Network DBMS) form relationship bodies form network structures.


Advantages:


Ease of data access.

Data independence.


Disadvantages:


System complexity

Maintenance


3. Relational DBMS: -


A relational database is based on a relational data model, using a collection of 'tables' to represent both data and relationships between those data.


A relational database is a collective set of several data sets. Which is represented by tables, records, and columns.


In the relational model, each table has many columns and each column has a unique name.


Advantages:


Flexibility

Accuracy

Speed


Disadvantages:


Cost

Structured boundaries


Object-oriented DBMS: -


Object-oriented databases classify data as objects and classes.

Object-oriented OOPs follow concepts. And in the object-oriented concept, an object is a real-world entity and a class is a collection of objects.


Advantages:


User-defined type

Flexibility

easy to handle


Disadvantages:


more complicated.

Not many programming languages ​​support object databases.



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